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The need for beef and cow’s milk in Indonesia is quite high, especially the demand for beef cattle during major holidays like Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.
In addition, the fertile soil of Indonesia also makes grass the main feed for livestock easier to find.
Cattle can not only produce beef and cow’s milk, but cow manure can also be used as compost. For those of you who want to get started in cattle farming, here are some successful ways of farming that you can follow, especially for beginners.
- Choose the Type of Cow
When you want to start farming, the first step you have to do is choose the type of cattle suitable for raising in your area because not all types of cattle are suitable in all areas, especially for fattening cattle.
Several factors to be considered when choosing the type of cattle are the number of cattle, the increase in population each year, distribution, carcass production, and also the efficient use of cattle feed.
Meanwhile, the types of cattle commonly found in Indonesia and often used as a source of meat are Ongole cattle, PO cattle or Ongole hybrids, Bali cattle, and also Madura cattle.
For its part, Brahman cattle are also very easy to raise because they are not very selective in terms of feeding, they are more immune to tick and mosquito bites and they are resistant to heat.
- Selection of cages for cattle
The ideal location for cattle farming is one that is away from residential areas with a minimum distance between the cage and the residence of approximately 10 meters. If possible, the cage location should also be close to agricultural land and accessible by vehicle. In addition, the cage must also be able to receive direct sunlight to maintain the humidity of the barn.
- Preparation of cages for cattle
For the preparation of the type of barn, including the home-scale cattle method, it must have two elements, namely a double and a single form, and, if possible, adjust it to the number of cows to be kept. The position of the cage for a type of cow placement is only done in a row or a row.
Meanwhile, for the placement of the double pen type, the cows can be placed in two rows facing each other or in opposition. Because it is doubled, they will usually be made between rows to make it easier to maintain.
The floor of the cage should also be kept clean, comfortable, and not damp to prevent disease. Although the floor can be made of cement or compacted earth, the important thing is that the cow manure must be easy to clean.
You can also add straw to the bottom to keep the cage warm. Cages and equipment should also be cleaned regularly with a sanitizing solution to prevent mold and disease. Well, the ideal barn size is as follows:
- The size of the cage for adult bulls is 1.5 x 2 meters and 2.5 x 2 meters.
- The cage size of the adult female is 1.8 x 2 meters.
- Cattle raising
There are several things to pay attention to in beef cattle. Some of these important factors include:
- He has markings on his ears.
- The eyes look bright and clean.
- There are no signs of respiratory distress, and the nostrils are not secreting mucus.
- The nail does not feel hot to the touch.
- The rectum has no signs of diarrhea.
- The skin is not damaged and the hair does not fall out.
- Give quality food
Feeding livestock and providing quality grass are the most important parts of caring for cattle, sheep or goats.
Although the cow’s main diet is grass, you should also provide some other feed, such as silage, hay, or seed, especially if grass is also very hard to come by.
Cattle that are fattened for slaughter are often in cages without grass because the feed given to them usually has to be carefully chosen and prevents the cows from eating carelessly.
In addition, other additional feeds can also be given, such as fine bran, tofu feces, coconut cake and cassava mixed with grass and also add mineral solutions such as table salt mixed with feed to treat hard-to-eat cows.
- give mineral water
Also provide enough mineral water in libitum which is also an important part in livestock because water is the most important nutrient for all types of livestock.
Minerals in the form of loose minerals with salt are also important because cattle also need a high salt content with a variety of feeds that cows eat, especially to treat cows that have difficulty drinking.
- Caring for Livestock Health
To maintain the health of cattle, including feedlot limousines, vaccinations and worm or lice prevention programs are also very important, especially for cattle that are going to be fattened or if your herd is at risk of certain diseases such as leg black, Bovine Viral Diarrhea. [BVD]calf position and also Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis [IBR].
Certain classes of cattle are also more susceptible to certain diseases than others, so be sure to always check your cattle with a veterinarian or farmer to get the proper vaccine for your cattle.
- Check for signs of pain or injury
Cattle raised in dry areas should also be checked more frequently than cattle raised on pasture because they are more at risk of disease but not symptoms of poisoning in cattle.
Cattle in dry areas should be checked every time they are fed, especially if multiple breeds of cattle are kept in the same area.
Cattle herds are also more at risk of injuries during the breeding season from bull competition, such as lameness or injured and broken penises that can be dangerous to your cattle.
Cattle raised in dry areas are also at higher risk for pneumonia or shipping fever, black leg, acidosis, and several other cattle diseases, so it is very important to check cattle for signs of illness or injury.
- Take care of the cows with fences
Livestock must also be cared for properly. In fact, the fences are very good for protecting livestock, as well as for raising Etawa goats. While the machine is also sometimes used by farmers for various purposes. Still, there are a few things you should pay more attention to.
- Cattle will try to escape if the fence is not guarded or accounted for when there is damage. From time to time, there will be cattle that escape even if you have adequately protected the fence.
- Engines that are maintained with oil, greased and also spare parts that are warranted or replaced must also be able to be used properly for a long time. Because old machines tend to require more maintenance than new machines, they need to be properly maintained so they can help support your livestock.
- Give a warm place
To raise calves, they must be kept in a warm and safe place, different from how rams are raised.
Put the cow in a place where you can protect the calf from bad weather or other animals. The barn with a small cage inside is a good place to raise cows. The barn should also be equipped with a fence so that the calves do not escape or wander.
- Be sure to put hay on the ground for calves to sleep in and do not put cows in the barn without adding calf bedding, as they are more susceptible to cold weather.
- Calves also need vitamin D, so it should also get good sunlight to support calf growth.
- Cow manure treatment
For cow manure, it should be immediately moved to another area so that it can then facilitate the fermentation process which takes 1-2 weeks.
This cow manure can later provide additional results as manure, different from the basic techniques of goat farming. Also, cow manure is also very important to clean up right away so you don’t spread disease to your cattle.
- Livestock Disease Control
For disease control in cattle, prevention is more important than treatment because it can increase production costs and treatment may not necessarily give maximum results.
Efforts that can be made to prevent cow disease are to separate old cows that are already sick so that the disease does not spread to other cows, such as symptoms of swollen jaws in cows. Additionally, there are several other ways you can do to prevent diseases in cattle, such as:
- Quarantine cage: separate the new cattle from the old through quarantine to monitor the condition of the new cattle and also make them adaptable to the new environment. Quarantine can be done for about 1 week and also give medicine for worms to the new cow.
- Keep the cage clean: Cattle that are fed regularly will also produce large amounts of manure, so waste removal must be done regularly to prevent the development of disease-causing viruses and bacteria.
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