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Ruminants, also known as ruminants, are mammals that eat, swallow, and re-eat their food so that the food passes through the digestive tract, especially the mouth, twice. The stomach of these animals is divided into 4 compartments consisting of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum.

These animals are generally plant eaters or are also herbivores, so in this case, the front/incisor teeth of these animals are usually reduced. Although they are able to eat quickly, mammals do not have the enzymes to digest plant cellulose. This is also the reason why ruminants have 4 stomach chambers.

4 Groups of Ruminants (Ruminants)
Stomach of ruminant animals

The first chamber is the rumen and it is the largest gastric space that functions as a food reservoir. The stomach is surrounded by papillae on its entire surface to maximize the absorption of nutrients, in addition to the fact that in the rumen there is a process of fermentation of food by microbes.

The reticulum is located after the rumen which serves as a storage place for foreign substances such as metals, cables and other objects in the same way or without destroying them. The surface wall of the reticulum is honeycomb-shaped.

Omasum is a free and spherical part of the stomach where the function of this part of the stomach is digestion, filtering large food particles, absorbing water and regulating the flow of digested food to the abomasum. This absorption of water makes the digestion of food in this organ drier than in other parts of the stomach.

The last compartment of the stomach in ruminants is the abomasum or often also called the true stomach, which has the same function as other non-ruminant animals, i.e. chemically digesting food involving digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid. .

In general, feeds ingested by ruminants and entering the rumen before they can be properly processed will be regurgitated and then chewed again adding saliva. The following are 4 groups of ruminants:

1. Bovine Group

Most ruminant groups belong to the bovinae subfamily, including cattle. An example of this group is the extinct animal ure or urus.

Ure with scientific name primal boss is a group of cattle located in continental Europe and at first glance similar to a bison with horns on the head, a black body and a height of approximately 1.8 meters.

4 Groups of Ruminants (Ruminants)

Another example is anoa with scientific name Bubalus quarlesi which is a typical Indonesian animal and also a rare animal in Sulawesi. Anoa is currently protected due to limited land, in this case forest, which can no longer support the anoa lifestyle, which tends to be wild.

Anoa belongs to the buffalo group but anoa is different from buffalo. Anoa is endothermic with dark brown to black skin. Another characteristic of Anoa is that it has a pointed horn, which is shaped like a triangle in the middle.

4 Groups of Ruminants (Ruminants)

2. Group ovis

Ovis is a genus that includes sheep in the Caprinae subfamily and belongs to the ruminant group. Sheep are the largest group of ruminants that are often used for their fur and milk.

An example of this genus is argali or ovis ammon and includes sheep that have been found so far. This animal is about 125 cm tall and weighs up to 140 kg and has large horns on its head.

4 Groups of Ruminants (Ruminants)

Another example is the urials. Urial or arkars or shapo with scientific name Ovis orientalis It is a group of wild sheep located in dry areas with an altitude of 4000 mdpl. This animal has a body weight of about 50 kg with a stocky body.

This animal is widely used as a hunting object, especially for males due to its beautiful horns, which is why the Urial is almost extinct.

4 Groups of Ruminants (Ruminants)
Urial or Arkars

3. Group of Goats

Caprinae is a group of goats that are closely related to the Bovinae. An example of this group is the musk ox or Ovibos moschatus They live in cold lands like the Arctic or tundra biomes (cold deserts). The form of adaptation of this animal is its very long hair and its horns forward.

4 Groups of Ruminants (Ruminants)
musk ox

barbarian goat or ammotragus lervia is a group of goats that live in dry lands like Africa. The body weight of the male of this animal reaches 145 kg while the female is around 45 kg. The main characteristic of this animal is the presence of long hair from the chest to the front of the legs.

4 Groups of Ruminants (Ruminants)
barbarian goat

4. Group of deer

Deer are a group of ruminants that are more attractive in appearance due to their beautiful antlers. There are many types of deer in Indonesia, but the following are examples of types of deer that are rarely found in Indonesia, namely pudu or pudu puda It is the smallest species of deer in the world.

This animal has a height of about 35-45 cm, the length of the body reaches 85 cm, and a maximum weight of 13.5 kg. Pudu’s hair is reddish brown with bright spots on the back. This hair is generally sparse and hard in texture.

4 Groups of Ruminants (Ruminants)

water deer or inermic hydropots As the name suggests, these animals primarily inhabit areas with abundant water sources, such as along rivers, or areas with tall reeds, open swamps.

The face of this animal is gray or reddish brown with a white chin and a brown body. This group of deer do not have antlers but have sharp and prominent canines.

4 Groups of Ruminants (Ruminants)
water deer

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