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Indonesia should be proud because Indonesia has a unique diversity and endemic richness that only belongs to a few regions of Indonesia. One of them is the anoa, an animal endemic to the island of Sulawesi. There is no other place that is the original habitat of this anoa, nor anywhere in the world, not even in other parts of Indonesia. How is the incarnation of anoa? Let’s talk about the characteristics and interesting things about one of the endemic animals of Sulawesi.
Anoa is one of the endemic animals of the island of Sulawesi. Anoa is a transition fauna, specifically Gauna, which are grouped according to their distribution in the Wallace line. The Wallace Line is a transition area between the continents of Asia and Australia that covers the islands of Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara and the Moluccas. The area that belongs to the Wallace line has a lot of endemic flora and fauna. One of them is anoa.
Anoa comes from the same family as cows, buffalo and bison, namely: bovids but only the same genus with the buffalo, namely the genus Bubalus. Indonesia is home to 2 species of anoa namely mountain anoa and lowland anoa. The existence of anoa is now threatened with extinction due to land clearing and also hunting by humans. Anoa is difficult to breed because it is sensitive and shy and lives in forests far from human contact. This makes it increasingly difficult for humans to increase the anoa population because it is difficult to tame and tame. Now the anoa has the status of a rare and endangered animal, even the protection of children is regulated in government law. Anoa has been protected by law since 1931. It was later reaffirmed by Law no. 5 of 1990 and Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999.
These are the characteristics of anoa in general:
- The anoa are usually solitary or solitary animals, but there are also those that live in pairs or in small groups of 3 to 5 anoa.
- The habitat where it lives is usually deep in the forest that is not touched by humans. Dense forest near watercourses such as rivers, lakes, or swamps or near mineral sources such as hot springs or coastal areas.
- Anoa can live a long time between 20 years and even up to 25 years.
- Anoa has started to experience a period of lust when she enters the age of 2 or 3. However, reproductive maturity can be reached at the age of 3-4 years.
- In a year, the mother anoa only gives birth to one anoa. In one birth, it is very rare for her to give birth to more than one child.
- Anoa’s gestation period ranges from 276 to 315 days.
- Ano chicks will normally be guarded by the female, while the male parent does not carry out this task.
- Anoa chicks will begin to be weaned by their mothers when they enter the age of 6 to 9 months.
- At birth, the baby anoa is born with thick brown, yellowish or golden fur. But the color will start to darken over time.
- The birth season for all children is usually between August and October.
Because anoa in Indonesia is divided into two types, the following are more specific characteristics of anoa depending on the type, namely mountain anoa and lowland anoa.
Mountain range of Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi)
- Anoa’s shoulder height is about 60-75 cm.
- Body length from head to toe about 122-153 cm.
- The length of the tail can reach 27 cm.
- The body weight of an adult mountain yearling is less than 150 kg.
- The horn shape of the anoa mountain is relatively short with a straight shape and backward-pointing angles. The length of the horns is about 15 cm to 20 cm.
- The mountain anoa has a much denser coat than the lowland anoa.
- The coat color of the male anoa is usually darker than that of the female anoa.
- It has a predilection for bathing in mud puddles to absorb minerals.
- The Sierra de Anoa usually has activity from the morning. When night falls, the Anoa usually return to their hiding place. Like under a tree, behind a big new or in a rock cave.
- The mountain anoa is a herbivore that usually eats grass or leaves, surrounding fruits, ferns, palm trees and ginger.
- Anoa state is already endangered where the population is only around 3,000 to 5,000 individuals.
Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis)
- Generally larger than mountain anoa. Shoulder height is about 80-100 cm.
- The length of the body reaches 180 cm.
- The body weight of the lowland anoa can reach 200 to 300 kg.
- This anoa has a head shape that looks like a cow but its toenails are similar to those of a bull.
- The front legs of this anoa are white with vertical black stripes.
- The horns of the lowland anoa point backwards in the form of a triangular cross-section. The base of the horn is round. Anoa horns are said to be similar to cow or buffalo horns.
- The length of the horns of the lowland anoa is about 18 to 37 cm.
- Like the mountain anoa, the lowland anoa is also a herbivore. The food is grass, bushes or leaves, fruits and even tubers.
- To satisfy its mineral needs, this anoa has a habit of licking rocks that contain salt.
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